Xueling Wu, MD, PhD

  • Associate Professor of Medical Sciences (in Medicine)
Profile Headshot


Academic Appointments

  • Associate Professor of Medical Sciences (in Medicine)


  • Chinese


  • Female

Credentials & Experience

Education & Training

  • MD, 1994 Medicine, Tongji Medical University (China)
  • PhD, 2002 Microbiology, Univ of Alabama/Birmingham Hospital
  • Fellowship: 2006 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Honors & Awards

  • 2003-2006
    • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Cancer Research Institute, New York
  • 2005
    • Keystone Symposia Scholarship, NIAID
  • 2006
    • Keystone Symposia Conference Assistance, NIAID
  • 2010
    • Oral Presentation, AIDS Vaccine 2010 Conference, Atlanta, GA
  • 2010-2012
    • Director’s Award, Vaccine Research Center, NIAID
  • 2010-2012
    • Employee Merit Award, NIAID
  • 2012
    • Invited Speaker, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
  • 2013
    • Invited Speaker, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
  • 2013
    • Invited Speaker, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
  • 2014
    • Oral Presentation and Panel Moderator, CROI, Boston, MA
  • 2015
    • Invited Speaker, the 4th Medical Forum for Chinese Scientists, Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China
  • 2016
    • Invited Speaker, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, MA


Our overall research interest is to elucidate the mechanisms by which the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) elicits broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses in humans and rhesus macaques, with an ultimate goal to guide HIV-1 vaccine development.

Selected Publications

  • Wu X and Jackson S. Plasma and salivary IgG subclasses in HIV-1 infection: evidence for both local synthesis and transudation of IgG in parotid saliva. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2000, 16: 1423-1431
  • Wu X and Jackson S. Plasma and salivary IgA subclasses and IgM in HIV-1-infected individuals.
  • Wu X and Jackson S. A longitudinal study of plasma and salivary antibodies in HIV-1 infection. Viral Immunology 2002, 15: 323-333
  • Wu X, Hall S and Jackson S. Tropism-restricted neutralization by secretory IgA from parotid saliva of HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2003, 19: 275-281
  • Moore J*, Wu X*, Kulhavy R, Tomana M, Novak J, Moldoveanu Z, Brown R, Goepfert P and Mestecky J. Increased levels of galactose-deficient IgG in sera of HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS 2005, 19: 381-389 *equal contribution
  • Wu X, Parast A, Richardson B, Nduati R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Rainwater S and Overbaugh J. Neutralization escape variants of HIV-1 are transmitted from mother to infant. Journal of Virology 2006, 80: 835-844 Spotlight paper
  • Sagar M, Wu X, Lee S and Overbaugh J. HIV-1 V1-V2 envelope loop sequences expand and add glycosylation sites over the course of infection, and these modifications affect antibody neutralization sensitivity. Journal of Virology 2006, 80: 9586-9598
  • Rainwater S, Wu X, Nduati R, Nedellec R, Mosier D, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D and Overbaugh J. Cloning and characterization of functional subtype A HIV-1 envelope variants transmitted through breastfeeding. Current HIV Research 2007, 5: 189-197
  • Li Y, Migueles S, Welcher B, Svehla K, Phogat A, Louder M, Wu X, Shaw G, Connors M, Wyatt R and Mascola J. Broad HIV-1 neutralization mediated by CD4-binding site antibodies. Nature Medicine 2007, 13: 1032-1034
  • Williams D, Piantadosi A, Wu X, Forthal D, Landucci G, Pineda M, Kimata J and Overbaugh J. Heavily glycosylated, highly fit SIVMne variants continue to diversify and undergo selection after transmission to a new host and they elicit early antibody dependent cellular responses but delayed neutralizing antibody responses. Virology Journal 2008, 5: 90
  • Wu X, Sambor A, Nason M, Yang Z, Wu L, Zolla-Pazner S, Nabel G and Mascola J. Soluble CD4 broadens neutralization of V3-directed monoclonal antibodies and guinea pig vaccine sera against HIV-1 subtype B and C reference viruses. Virology 2008, 380: 285-295
  • Li Y, Svehla K, Louder M, Wycuff D, Phogat S, Tang M, Migueles S, Wu X, Phogat A, Shaw G, Connors M, Hoxie J, Mascola J and Wyatt R. Analysis of neutralization specificities in polyclonal sera derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals. Journal of Virology 2009, 83: 1045-1059
  • Provine N, Puryear W, Wu X, Overbaugh J and Haigwood N. The infectious molecular clone and pseudotyped virus models of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 exhibit significant differences in virion composition with only moderate differences in infectivity and inhibition sensitivity. Journal of Virology 2009, 83: 9002-9007
  • Wu X*, Zhou T*, O’Dell S, Wyatt R, Kwong P and Mascola J. Mechanism of HIV-1 resistance to monoclonal antibody b12 that effectively targets the site of CD4 attachment. Journal of Virology 2009, 83: 10892-10907 spotlight paper *equal contribution
  • Chen L*, Kwon Y*, Zhou T*, Wu X, O’Dell S, Cavacini L, Hessell A, Pancera M, Tang M, Xu L, Yang Z, Zhang M, Arthos J, Burton D, Dimitrov D, Nabel G, Posner M, Sodroski J, Wyatt R, Mascola J and Kwong P. Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120. Science 2009, 326: 1123-1127 *equal contribution
  • Pancera M, McLellan J*, Wu X*, Zhu J*, Changela A, Schmidt S, Yang Y, Zhou T, Phogat S, Mascola J and Kwong P. Crystal structure of PG16 and chimeric dissection with somatically related PG9: structure-function analysis of two quaternary-specific antibodies that effectively neutralize HIV-1. Journal of Virology 2010, 84: 8098-8110 spotlight paper *equal contribution
  • Wu X*, Yang Z*, Li Y*, Hogerkorp C, Schief W, Seaman M, Zhou T, Schmidt S, Wu L, Xu L, O’Dell S, McKee K, Longo N, Louder M, Wycuff D, Feng Y, Guenaga J, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong P, Roederer M, Wyatt R, Nabel G* and Mascola J*. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 2010, 329: 856-861 *equal contribution
  • Zhou T, Georgiev I*, Wu X*, Yang Z*, Dai K, Finzi A, Kwon Y, Scheid J, Shi W, Xu L, Yang Y, Zhu J, Nussenzweig M, Sodroski J, Shapiro L, Nabel G, Mascola J and Kwong P. Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01. Science 2010, 329: 811-817 *equal contribution
  • Changela A, Wu X*, Yang Y*, Zhang B*, Zhu J*, Nardone G, O’Dell S, Pancera M, Gorny M, Phogat S, Robinson J, Stamatatos L, Zolla-Pazner S, Mascola J and Kwong P. Crystal structure of human antibody 2909 reveals conserved features of quaternary structure-specific antibodies that potently neutralize HIV-1. Journal of Virology 2011, 85: 2524-2535 *equal contribution
  • Wu X, Changela A, O’Dell S, Schmidt S, Pancera M, Yang Y, Zhang B, Gorny M, Phogat S, Robinson J, Stamatatos L, Zolla-Pazner S, Kwong P and Mascola J. Immunotypes of a quaternary site of HIV-1 vulnerability and their recognition by antibodies. Journal of Virology 2011, 85: 4578-4585
  • Li Y, O'Dell S, Walker L, Wu X, Guenaga J, Feng Y, Schmidt S, McKee K, Louder M, Ledgerwood J, Graham B, Haynes B, Burton D, Wyatt R and Mascola J. Mechanism of neutralization by the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibody VRC01. Journal of Virology 2011, 85: 8954-8967
  • Wu X*, Zhou T*, Zhu J*, Zhang B, Georgiev I, Wang C, Chen X, Longo N, Louder M, McKee K, O’Dell S, Perfetto S, Schmidt S, Shi W, Wu L, Yang Y, Yang Z, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Bonsignori M, Crump J, Kapiga S, Sam N, Haynes B, Simek M, Burton D, Koff W, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Nabel G, Roederer M, Shapiro L, Kwong P* and Mascola J*. Focused evolution of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies revealed by structures and deep sequencing. Science 2011, 333: 1593-1602 cover *equal contribution
  • Bonsignori M, Montefiori D, Wu X, Chen X, Hwang K, Tsao C, Kozink D, Parks R, Tomaras G, Crump J, Kapiga S, Sam N, Kwong P, Kepler T, Liao H, Mascola J and Haynes B. Two distinct broadly neutralizing antibody specificities of different clonal lineages in a single HIV-1- infected donor: implications for vaccine design. Journal of Virology 2012, 86: 4688-4692
  • Falkowska E, Ramos A, Feng Y, Zhou T, Moquin S, Walker L, Wu X, Seaman M, Wrin T, Kwong P, Wyatt R, Mascola J, Poignard P and Burton D. PGV04, an HIV-1 gp120 CD4 binding site antibody, is broad and potent in neutralization but does not induce conformational changes characteristic of CD4. Journal of Virology 2012, 86: 4394-4403
  • Kwon Y, Finzi A, Wu X, Dogo-Isonagie C, Lee L, Moore L, Schmidt S, Stuckey J, Yang Y, Zhou T, Zhu J, Vicic D, Debnath A, Shapiro L, Bewley C, Mascola J, Sodroski J and Kwong P. Unliganded HIV-1 gp120 core structures assume the CD4-bound conformation with regulation by quaternary interactions and variable loops. PNAS 2012, 109: 5663-5668
  • Wu X, Wang C, O'Dell S, Li Y, Keele B, Yang Z, Imamichi H, Doria-Rose N, Hoxie J, Connors M, Shaw G, Wyatt R and Mascola J. Selection pressure on HIV-1 envelope by broadly neutralizing antibodies to the conserved CD4-binding site. Journal of Virology 2012, 86: 5844-5856
  • Li Y, O'Dell S, Wilson R, Wu X, Schmidt S, Hogerkorp C, Louder M, Longo N, Poulsen C, Guenaga J, Chakrabarti B, Doria-Rose N, Roederer M, Connors M, Mascola J and Wyatt R. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies display dual recognition of the primary and coreceptor binding sites and preferential binding to fully-cleaved envelope glycoproteins. Journal of Virology 2012, 86: 11231-11241
  • Zhu J, O'Dell S, Ofek G, Pancera M, Wu X, Zhang B, Zhang Z, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Simek M, Burton D, Koff W, Shapiro L, Mascola J and Kwong P. Somatic populations of PGT135-137 HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies identified by 454 pyrosequencing and bioinformatics. Frontiers in Microbiology 2012, 3: 315
  • Ota T, Doyle-Cooper C, Cooper A, Huber M, Falkowska E, Doores K, Hangartner L, Le K, Sok D, Jardine J, Lifson J, Wu X, Mascola J, Poignard P, Binley J, Chakrabarti B, Schief W, Wyatt R, Burton D and Nemazee D. Anti-HIV B cell lines as candidate vaccine biosensors. Journal of Immunology 2012, 189: 4816-4824
  • Joyce G, Kanekiyo M, Xu L, Biertümpfel C, Boyington J, Moquin S, Shi W, Wu X, Yang Z, Yang Y, Zhang B, Zheng A, Zhou T, Zhu J, Mascola J, Kwong P and Nabel G. Outer domain of HIV-1 gp120: antigenic optimization, structural malleability, and crystal structure with antibody VRC-PG04. Journal of Virology 2013, 87: 2294-2306
  • Zhou T*, Zhu J*, Wu X, Moquin S, Zhang B, Acharya P, Georgiev I, Altae-Tran H, Chuang G, Joyce G, Kwon Y, Longo N, Louder M, Luongo T, McKee K, Schramm C, Skinner J, Yang Y, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Zheng A, Bonsignori M, Haynes B, Scheid J, Nussenzweig M, Simek M, Burton D, Koff W, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Connors M, Shapiro L, Nabel G, Mascola J and Kwong P. Multidonor analysis reveals structural elements, genetic determinants, and maturation pathway for HIV-1 neutralization by VRC01-class antibodies. Immunity 2013, 39: 245-258 *equal contribution
  • Zhu J, Wu X, Zhang B, McKee K, O'Dell S, Soto C, Zhou T, Casazza J, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Kwong P, Mascola J and Shapiro L. De novo identification of VRC01-class HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies by next-generation sequencing of B cell transcripts. PNAS 2013, 110: E4088-4097
  • Kepler T, Liao H, Alam S, Bhaskarabhatla R, Zhang R, Yandava C, Stewart S, Anasti K, Kelsoe G, Parks R, Lloyd K, Stolarchuk C, Pritchett J, Solomon E, Friberg E, Morris L, Karim S, Cohen M, Walter E, Moody M, Wu X, Altae-Tran H, Georgiev I, Kwong P, Boyd S, Fire A, Mascola J and Haynes B. Immunoglobulin gene insertions and deletions in the affinity maturation of HIV-1 broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. Cell Host & Microbe 2014, 16: 304-313
  • Rudicell R, Kwon Y, Ko S, Pegu A, Louder M, Georgiev I, Wu X, Zhu J, Boyington J, Chen X, Shi W, Yang Z, Doria-Rose N, McKee K, O'Dell S, Schmidt S, Chuang G, Druz A, Soto C, Yang Y, Zhang B, Zhou T, Todd J, Lloyd K, Eudailey J, Roberts K, Donald B, Bailer R, Ledgerwood J, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Shapiro L, Koup R, Graham B, Nason M, Connors M, Haynes B, Rao S, Roederer M, Kwong P, Mascola J and Nabel G. Enhanced potency of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody in vitro improves protection against lentiviral infection in vivo. Journal of Virology 2014, 88: 12669-12682
  • Lynch R, Wong P, Tran L, O’Dell S, Nason M, Li Y, Wu X and Mascola J. HIV-1 fitness cost associated with escape from the VRC01 class of CD4 binding site neutralizing antibodies. Journal of Virology 2015, 89: 4201-4213
  • Wu X*, Zhang Z*, Schramm C*, Joyce G*, Kwon Y*, Zhou T*, Sheng Z*, Zhang B, O’Dell S, McKee K, Georgiev I, Chuang G, Longo N, Saunders K, Soto C, Srivatsan S, Yang Y, Bailer R, Louder M, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Connors M, Kwong P*, Mascola J* and Shapiro L*. Maturation and diversity of the VRC01-antibody lineage over 15 years of chronic HIV-1 infection. Cell 2015, 161: 470-485 *equal contribution
  • Zhou T*, Lynch R*, Chen L*, Acharya P*, Wu X, Doria-Rose N, Joyce M, Lingwood D, Soto C, Bailer R, Ernandes M, Kong R, Longo N, Louder M, McKee K, O’Dell S, Schmidt S, Tran L, Yang Z, Druz A, Luongo T, Moquin S, Srivatsan S, Yang Y, Zhang B, Zheng A, Pancera M, Kirys T, Georgiev I, Gindin T, Peng H, Yang A, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin J, Gray M, Stamatatos L, Burton D, Koff W, Cohen M, Haynes B, Casazza J, Connors M, Corti D, Lanzavecchia A, Sattentau Q, Weiss R, West A Jr., Bjorkman P, Scheid J, Nussenzweig M, Shapiro L, Mascola J* and Kwong P*. Structural repertoire of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies targeting the CD4 supersite in 14 donors. Cell 2015, 161: 1280-1292 *equal contribution
  • Jia M, Lu H, Markowitz M, Cheng-Mayer C and Wu X. Development of broadly neutralizing antibodies and their mapping by monomeric gp120 in HIV-1 infected humans and SHIVSF162P3N infected macaques. Journal of Virology 2016, 90: 4017-4031
  • Wu X and Kong XP. Antigenic landscape of the HIV-1 envelope and new immunological concepts defined by HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. Current Opinion in Immunology 2016, 42: 56-64 Review
  • Lin N, Gonzalez OA, Registre L, Becerril C, Etemad B, Lu H, Wu X, Lockman S, Essex M, Moyo S, Kuritzkes DR and Sagar M. Humoral immune pressure selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine receptor 4-using variants. EBioMedicine 2016, 8: 237-247
  • Richard J, Pacheco B, Gohain N, Veillette M, Ding S, Alsahafi N, Tolbert WD, Prévost J, Chapleau JP, Coutu M, Jia M, Brassard N, Park J, Courter JR, Melillo B, Martin L, Tremblay C, Hahn BH, Kaufmann DE, Wu X, Smith AB 3rd, Sodroski J, Pazgier M and Finzi A. Co-receptor binding site antibodies enable CD4-mimetics to expose conserved anti-cluster A ADCC epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. EBioMedicine 2016, 12: 208-218
  • Waltari E, Jia M, Lu H, Huang J, Fernandez C, Finzi A, Kaufmann DE, Markowitz M, Tsuji M and Wu X. Human B cell receptor features and rare naïve clonal B cells revealed by 5’ RACE and Illumina sequencing with parallel immunophenotyping. Submitted